|Integrated Clean Energy for Peace and Climate|
The United Nations General Assembly Official Agreements on Clean Energy Development for the Small Island Developing States.
United Nations Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States A/CONF.167/9 October 1994
REPORT OF THE GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES
Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May 1994
VII. ENERGY RESOURCES
Basis for action
35. Small island developing States are currently heavily dependent on imported petroleum products, largely for transport and electricity generation, energy often accounting for more than 12 per cent of imports. They are also heavily dependent on indigenous biomass fuels for cooking and crop drying.
36. Small island developing States will continue to be heavily dependent on petroleum fuels and biomass both in the short and medium term. However, the current uses of those fuels tend to be highly inefficient. Increased efficiency through appropriate technology and national energy policies and management measures will reap both financial and environmental benefits for small island developing States.
37. The renewable energy resources endowments of small island developing States vary greatly. All have substantial solar resources, which have still not been developed to their full potential. Wind potential is highly variable with location, both within and between countries. Hydroelectric power is a possibility only for some islands. Biomass endowment is common but unequal. Studies of the potential for geothermal, ocean thermal energy conversion and wave energy are continuing.
38. Several constraints to the large-scale commercial use of renewable energy resources remain, including technology development, investment costs, available indigenous skills and management capabilities. Small-scale application for rural electrification has been sporadic. The use of renewable energy resources as substantial commercial fuels by small island developing States is dependent on the development and commercial production of appropriate technologies.
A. National action, policies and measures
(i) Implement appropriate public education and awareness programmes, including consumer incentives to promote energy conservation.
(ii) Promote the efficient use of energy and the development of environmentally sound sources of energy and energy-efficient technologies, paying special attention to the possibilities of using, where appropriate, economic instruments and incentive structures and the increasing economic possibilities of renewable sources of energy.
(iii) Establish and/or strengthen, where appropriate, research capabilities in the development and promotion of new and renewable sources of energy, including wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave and biomass energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion.
(iv) Strengthen research capabilities and develop technologies to encourage the efficient utilization of non-renewable sources of energy.
B. Regional action
(i) Establish or strengthen research and policy capabilities in the development of new and renewable sources of energy, including wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave and biomass energy.
(ii) Assist, where appropriate, in the formulation of energy policies, standards and guidelines for the energy sector that are applicable to small island developing States, and enhance national capacity to effectively plan, manage and monitor their energy sectors.
(iii) Gather and disseminate information, and promote regional cooperation and technical exchanges among small island developing States on energy-sector issues, including new and renewable sources of energy.
C. International action
(i) Support the research, development and utilization of renewable sources of energy and related technologies and improve the efficiency of existing technologies and end-use equipment based on conventional energy sources.
(ii) Formulate and ratify international agreements on energy-sector issues in relation to sustainable development in such areas as carbon emissions and the transportation of petroleum (for example, the use of double-hulled tankers).
(iii) Develop effective mechanisms for the transfer of energy technology and establish databases to disseminate information on experience in the use of new and renewable sources of energy as well as on the efficient use of non-renewable energy sources.
(iv) Encourage international institutions and agencies, including public international financial institutions, to incorporate environmental efficiency and conservation principles into energy-sector-related projects, training and technical assistance, and, where appropriate, to provide concessionary financing facilities for energy-sector reforms.
(v) Develop effective and efficient ways of utilizing, disposing of, recycling and reducing the by-products and waste of energy production.
Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Whole of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly United Nations, New York, 1999.A/S-22/9/Rev.1.
State of progress and initiatives for the future implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States
18. Taking into account the dependency of small island developing States on conventional energy sources, there is a need for mobilization of resources from all sources, including from the private sector, for the provision of technical, financial and technological assistance, as appropriate, to small island developing States, to encourage energy efficiency and to accelerate and maximize the development and utilization of environmentally sound renewable energy sources.
19. In the context of actions being undertaken to address these issues and on the basis of a strong and committed partnership between small island developing States and the international community, the international community and small island developing States should pursue and support the following goals, objectives, and activities, including through specific modalities, to assist in the continued implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States:
(a) Establishing of renewable energy initiatives at the regional level so as to avoid duplication of efforts and to achieve economies of scale;.A/S-22/9/Rev.1 E/CN.17/1999/5 and Add.1-5 p See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1999, Supplement No. 9 (E/1999/29), q chap. I.C. 14
(b) Developing of human resources for the planning and sustainable management needs of a renewable energy sector;
(c) Promoting research and development and private sector investment in priority renewable energy projects;
(d) Financing renewable energy applications, including standards and guidelines for energy efficiency and conservation;
(e) Implementing in small island developing States the best practices to achieve clean, sustainable energy resources and encouraging private sector involvement in the utilization of renewable energy resources and innovative financing schemes with a view to longer-term self-sufficiency in energy resources.
Source: State of progress and initiatives for the future implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. A/S-22/9/Rev.1 gopher://gopher.un.org/00/ga/docs/53/plenary/sids.txt